Understanding Kidney Failure

Kidneys are your body’s filters. They purify blood several times a day, maintain your body’s fluid and electrolyte balance and produce urine.

So when the kidneys fail to function, your body starts getting poisoned. Each of your kidneys comprises a million microscopic filtering units called nephron. The most dangerous fact about kidney or renal failure is that one might not know about it till 90% of the function is lost.

The symptoms of kidney or renal damage include symptoms like swollen ankles, vomiting, weakness, poor sleep, and shortness of breath. If not addressed medically, the kidneys will eventually become dysfunctional – a condition that’s life threatening.

    What causes kidney failure?

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when your kidneys have been malfunctioning for more than 3 months. It’s an irreparable, life threatening condition and there might be no visible symptoms at all.

    Diabetes (types 1 and 2), high blood pressure, immune system diseases such as Lupus and chronic viral illnesses like AIDS, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C can also cause kidney failure.

    The other reasons for kidney failure include:

    Multiple episodes of urinary tract infection

    Post-strep infection

    Polycystic kidney disease

    Inherited kidney diseases

    Congenital or birth defects - In many cases, the defect is rectified while the baby is still in mother’s womb; whereas those with major complications can only be managed at a later stage.

    Drugs and toxins, including long-term use medications like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs

    Long-term exposure to certain chemicals

      What is Kidney Transplant?

      Kidney transplant is the process of replacing the diseased kidney with a healthy, donated kidney. It is recommended only if the kidneys are so damaged that they cannot be managed medically (Chronic Kidney Disease or End Stage Renal Disease).

      In some cases, transplant might not be a practical solution if the patient has an active infection or another life-threatening disease such as cancer, severe heart or lung diseases.

      Fortunately, according to worldwide figures, the success rate of kidney transplant is above 95%. This not only comes as a reassurance for those opting for transplant, but also reaffirms the fact that kidney transplant is indeed an effective mode of treatment.

        What are the types of kidney transplant?

        There are two types of kidney transplants: Live donor Transplant and Cadaver Transplant

        When a person is transplanted with a kidney from a live donor, it is called Live Donor Transplant. The donor could be anyone - a family member, friend, colleague or even a random person who is generous enough to gift life by donating one of his/ her kidney.

        Usually, the success rates of kidney transplants in which the donor and recipient belong to one family (parent/ sibling) are higher. This is because of high donor-recipient compatibility, which means the chances of rejection are very low. A live donor makes things easy as the waiting period is lesser and the patient gets well faster.

        Cadaver transplant is when the kidney is got from a donor who is certified brain-dead. He or she would have would have signed up for donation before death. The kidney is surgically removed after obtaining consent from the deceased’s family and transplanted in the recipient.

          What are the pre-transplant formalities?

          You will have to go through a series of investigations before the surgery to ensure that the donor kidney matches your tissue and blood type. You will also be screened for other health problems including heart or lung diseases.

          After these tests, you will be enlisted on the transplant list and also on the organ sharing network list. As soon as a matching recipient is available, we will let you know; and if all factors are favourable, our entire team will work as one to ensure you undergo the surgery without any issues.

            What is robotic kidney transplant?

            Robotic kidney transplant is a high-precision procedure in which the transplant surgery is performed with the help of a surgery robot. Aster Centre of Excellence in Multi-Organ Transplant is one of the few facilities in India to offer robotic kidney transplant. The first hospital in Kerala to offer da Vinci surgical system (surgery robot), we have the finest team of robotic surgeons with several years of international training.

            In this procedure, our surgeon will use the da Vinci to remove the diseased kidney and replace it with the healthy, donated kidney. A highly advanced and minimally invasive procedure, the advantage of robotic surgery is that the pain, blood loss and recovery time are significantly lesser compared to the conventional open surgery. The scarring too is minimal.

              What are the possible post-transplant risks?

              The post-surgical risks, like every other transplant surgery, include rejection, infection, bleeding or reaction to anaesthesia.

              Rejection happens when the body fails to recognise the new kidney and fights to destroy it. During the first few weeks or months post-surgery, your body may try to reject your new kidney. This is called acute rejection and occurs in 25 - 55% of the recipients. You’ll be given immuno-suppressants to counter this problem. Remember, it is mandatory to continue these medicines for the rest of your life.

              There is also a chance of chronic rejection - a gradual, progressive loss of kidney function that may occur over many years. Unfortunately, there’s no known treatment for chronic rejection and the patient may have depend on dialysis again or opt for another transplant.

              Aster Centre of Excellence in Multi-Organ Transplant has a very strong infection control system that’s managed by a highly-trained team of infectious diseases & infection control Physicians. Besides, we also have advanced technology like the HEPA Filter that purifies air to 0.3 microns, creating a safe and sterile environment for the patient.

                What will it be like after the surgery?

                You’ll be under continuous medical observation for 7 to 10 days post surgery, so that we can check whether your new kidney is functioning properly. At times, the new kidney might take some time to start functioning and produce urine. You might have to undergo dialysis till then and also take medications like diuretics to help the kidney expel excess water and salt from your body.

                Our nurses and rehabilitation experts will take good care of you and guide you through your recovery.

                We have state-of-the-art hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis facility, complete with a water treatment plant to ensure high-quality dialysis for patients.


                  It is very important to visit your consulting doctor regularly and undergo all prescribed follow-ups and test to make sure that your new kidney is functioning well. Remember, a transplant surgery is a second chance at life and you need to be responsible for your own well-being.

                  Doctors Logo
                  Dr. V. Narayanan Unni
                  Senior Consultant
                  Dr. V. Narayanan Unni

                  Dr. V. Narayanan Unni is Senior Consultant, Nephrology, CoE Nephrology and Urology. Rated among the best Nephrologists, he has more than 28 years of experience in treating patients of all ages with kidney diseases An expert in hypertension and kidney transplantation and his area of special interest is hemodialysis. Former Professor and Head of Nephrology, AIMS, Kochi and key opinion leader in kidney transplantation of the International Transplantation Society, he is also the Chief of Medical Services (CMS) of Aster Medcity.


                  FRCP (Glasgow, UK) | FISN|DM in Nephrology (PGIMER, Chandigarh) | DNB (National Board of Examinations, New Delhi) | MD in General Medicine (CMC, Vellore) | MBBS (Calicut Medical College)


                  Professor & Head of Nephrology - Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences

                  Asst. Professor, Associate Professor, Professor & Head of Nephrology-Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

                  Nephrologist, Dammam Central Hospital, K.S.A.

                  Awarded the Fellowship of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow, UK)

                  Fellowship of Indian Society of Nephrology

                  Key Opinion Leader in Kidney transplantation of the International Transplantation Society

                  Member of many national and international professional associations in Nephrology

                  Invited to deliver talks and guest lectures at national and international conferences.

                  President of Nephrology Association of Kerala

                  Published 54 articles in International and Indian Medical Journals

                  Fellowship of Indian Society of Nephrology

                  Recipient of six Gold Medals for MBBS

                  Chapters in textbooks - Essentials of Nephrology and Urology, Renal Replacement therapy in Text Book of Medicine &Text book of Medicine

                  Examiner for DM in Nephrology at P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh,C.M.C. Hospital, Vellore , Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai & Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham University

                  Examiner for Nephrology in the National Board of Examinations, New Delhi

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam, Hindi

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                  Dr. Suresh G Nair
                  Senior Consultant
                  Dr. Suresh G Nair

                  Dr. Suresh G Nair is Senior Consultant, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Services. A veteran in Anaesthesiology with more than 25 years of experience in pain and Critical Care, Medical Intensive Care, Transoesophageal Echocardiography and Mechanical ventilation, he is an expert capable of handling even the most complicated cases, across multiple Specialities. He also has 15 years of experience in teaching as Professor and Head Of Department.


                  FIACTA (HON) | FTEE (HON)| MS (Baroda Medical College)| MBBS (Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram)


                  Associate Professor, Sree Chithira Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram

                  Professor and Head of Department, Anaesthesia and Critical Care, AIMS, Kochi

                  22 years of teaching experience

                  Examiner for MD anesthesia

                  Examiner for DNB anesthesia

                  Examiner for fellowship in cardiac anesthesia

                  Teacher in Transoesophageal Echocardiography

                  Published 46 Research articles in International and Indian Journals

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam, Hindi, Gujarati and Tamil

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                  Dr. Ramprasad M.K
                  Senior Specialist
                  Dr. Ramprasad M.K

                  Dr. Ramparasad M.K is Senior Specialist, Urology, with more than 1 year of experience in Surgery. He specialises in Genitourinary Surgery and has special interest in Endourology, Stone management, RIRS & HOLEP. He is into research on DJ Stents for ureteric & renal stones - the ongoing research being Encrustations on DJ Sents FTIR Analysis.


                  Mch in Urology (Govt. Medical College,Kottayam) ||MS in General Surgery (Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram) | MBBS (Govt. Medical College,Thrissur)


                  Trained in Endourology and Stone Surgery

                  Ongoing Research on encrustations on DJ Stent FTIR Analysis

                  Numerous presentations made at general Surgery Conferences

                  Published multiple articles

                  Proficient in English & Malayalam

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                  Dr. Vinod Kumar K
                  Dr. Vinod Kumar K

                  Dr. Vinod Kumar K is Consultant , Nephrology. He specialises in General Nephrology and his areas of special interest are critical care nephrology and renal transplantation. He is former Assistant Professor of General Medicine at Kannur Medical College.


                  DNB in Nephrology (St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore)| MD (KIMS , Hubli) | MBBS (JSS Medical College ,Mysore)


                  Asst. professor, General Medicine, Kannur medical College

                  Senior Resident, Department of Nephrology, St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore

                  BMH Care Hospital

                  Published multiple articles in national and international journals

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam, Hindi & Kannada

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                  Dr. Bipi PK
                  Senior Specialist
                  Dr. Bipi PK

                  A Nephrologist, Dr. Bipi PK is trained in critical care nephrology, paediatric nephrology and renal transplantation. He is also a trained General Physician.


                  DM in Nephrology (Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram) | MD (Govt. Medical College, Chennai) | MBBS (TD Medical College, Alappuzha)


                  Department of Paediatric Nephrology, SAT hospital, Thiruvananthapuram

                  Lecturer in Nephrology, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram

                  Consultant Physician, Co-operative Hospital, Thodupuzha

                  Proficient in English, Hindi, Malayalam andTamil

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                  Dr. Kishore T.A
                  Dr. Kishore T.A

                  Dr. Kishore T.A is Consultant, CoE Nephrology and Urology. An Urologist with more than 9 years of experience and three Fellowships including Robotic Urology Surgery, he was trained extensively at the finest hospitals in USA and India. With surgical skills that are exceptionally brilliant, he is the first surgeon in India to perform NOTES assisted Vaginal Donor Nephrectomy and the first in Kerala to do Single Incision Donor Nephrectomy. He is also an expert in Robotic Surgery, Renal Transplantation, Urological Oncology and Endourology.


                  Fellowship in Robotic Surgery (Columbia University division of Urology, Miami)| Fellowship- Urologic Oncology (University of Miami & Accredited by Society Urologic Oncology)| Fellowship in Endo urology (University of Minnesota & Accredited by Endo Urological Society)| MCh Urology (Government Medical College, Kottayam)| Board certified in General Surgery (DNB) India| Board Certified in Urology (DNB) India| MRCS (Edinburgh) | M.S. General Surgery (Govt. Medical College, Calicut)| MBBS (Govt. Medical College, Thrissur|


                  First in India to perform NOTES assisted Vaginal Donor Nephrectomy

                  First in the State of Kerala to do Single Incision Donor Nephrectomy- the second largest in the world

                  The first to use da Vinci Surgical Robot in the State, at Aster Medcity

                  Expertise in Laparoscopic single site donor Nephrectomy, NOTES Donor Nephrectomy, Ablation procedures (RFA, Cryotherapy), Robotic surgery (Robotic Prostatectomy /Cystectomy, Partial Nephrectomy), Laproscopy(Partial Nephrectomy ,Radical Nephrectomy ,Donor Nephrectomy), Endo urology (Flexible Uteroscopy ,PCNL,TURF,TURBT), Oncology (Laproscopic /robotic prostatectomy ,Cystectomy, Neobladder),Renal Transplantation & Buccal Mucosal Urethroplasty.

                  Associate Urologist, MS Ramaiah Hospital and Medical College, Bangalore, India

                  Assistant Professor of Urology, Amala Cancer Centre and Medical College, Thrissur

                  Teaching Instructor in Oncology and Sexual rehabilitation, Department of Urology, University of Miami

                  Consultant Urologist and Transplant surgeon, Department of Urology, Medical Trust Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India

                  Performed more than 250 laproscopic donor nephrectomies & renal transplantations in the last two and a half years

                  Best paper award in the Annual Association of Surgeons of India

                  Best outgoing student for M.S. General Surgery – University of Calicut 2001

                  “Komaranchath” prize for the best publication by Urological Association of Kerala

                  Corporate Sponsored Fellowship by Endourological Society for the year

                  SS Bapat prize for the Best innovation in Urology in USICON 2014

                  Member, Editorial Board- International Journal of Urology and Nephrology,
 Asian Network for Scientific Information, Open Urology and Nephrology Journal
, Open Prostate Cancer Journal

- Journal of Endourology
, Urology, Journal of Urology, Urologic Oncology, European Urology, British Journal of Urology, Advances in Urology, International Journal of Urology and Nephrology, BMC Urology,
 International Journal of Urogynecology,
 International Journal of Nephrology and Urology,
 Urotoday International,
 Urology Journal


                  Published 27 articles

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam, Hindi

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                  Dr. Sangeeth P.S
                  Dr. Sangeeth P.S

                  Dr.Sangeeth.P.S is Senior Specialist, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Services. An Anaesthetist with more than 5 years of experience, he specialises in Hepato Biliary & Solid Organ Transplant Anaesthesia. His areas of special interest are high risk Hepato Biliary & Pancreatic Surgery & GI Critical care. He is former Assistant Professor at Jubilee Medical Mission College.


                  International Fellowship in Liver Transplant (ASAN Medical Centre, Seoul) | Fellowship in Liver Transplant AIMS Kochi| MD (BJMC Ahmedabad) | DA (Govt. Medical College, Calicut)| MBBS (Govt. Medical College Thrissur)


                  Assistant Professor, Jubilee Mission Medical College

                  Department of Anaesthesia, AIMS, Kochi

                  Junior Intensivist Paediatric Cardiac Surgery – MIMS Calicut

                  Expertise in Solid Organ Transplant Anaesthesia including Liver & Renal Transplant Anaesthesia for high risk HepatoBiliary &Pancreatic Surgery Anaesthesia for Vascular Surgery

                  Trained in Livet Transplant Anesthesia at ASAN Medical Centre, Seoul

                  Proficient in English, Hindi and Malayalam

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                  Dr. Rajappan Pillai. P
                  Dr. Rajappan Pillai. P

                  Dr. Rajappan Pillai .P, Consultant, Paediatric Intensive Care, CoE Child and Adolescent Care is a Paediatric Intensive Care Physician since 2006, and specialised training at the finest facilities in the United Kingdom, including the Great Ormond Street Hospital. An expert in providing highly advanced life support facilities like Inhaled Nitric Oxide, ECMO and Mechanical Ventilation to critically ill children and also stabilising and transporting them from peripheral hospitals to the main hospital, he specialises in Cardiac Intensive Care, Retrieval Services, Post Solid Organ Transplant Intensive Care and Aeromedical Transfer.


                  Fellowship - Paediatric (Kings College Hospital, London) |Fellowship- Retrieval& Aeromedical Transfer (Children’s Acute Transfer Services, London) | Fellowship - Paediatric & Cardiac Intensive care (Great Ormond Street hospital, London, United Kingdom) | MD in Pediatrics (JJM Medical College, Davangaree| MBBS (Government Medical College, Alappuzha, University of Kerala) |


                  Previuos faculty in Neonatal and Paediatric Intensive Care at Christian Medical College, Vellore

                  Trained in triaging, stabilisation and retrieval of critically ill children at CATS, one of the largest specialist Paediatric retrieval services in Europe

                  Trained in Aeromedical transfer of critically ill children

                  Trained in highly complex Paediatric medical and surgical emergencies at Great Ormond street hospital for childre, London, one of World’s best Children’s Hospitals

                  Trained in managing post op cardiac patients and ECMO patients at the Cardiac intensive care unit at Great Ormond street hospital for childre- one of the busiest center of Children’s cardiac surgery in the World and among the biggest ECMO center for children in Europe.

                  Trained in Post-operative management of Pediatric Liver Transplant patients at King’s College Hospital, London- the biggest center for pediatric liver transplant in the World

                  work Experience

                  Clinical Fellow, Paediatric Liver transplant & Intensive care unit, Kings College Hospital, Denmark hill. London

                  Senior Clinical Fellow, Paediatric & Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street hospital. London

                  Retrieval Fellow, Children’s Acute Transport Service (CATS), Great Ormond Street Hospital, London

                  Clinical Fellow, Paediatric Intensive care unit, St Mary’s hospital, Imperial Healthcare trust. London

                  Assistant professor, Paediatric intensive care unit, Christian Medical college, Vellore

                  Assistant Professor, Neonatal intensive care unit, Christian Medical College, Vellore

                  Associate Professor, Neonatal intensive care unit, Pushpagiri Medical College, Thiruvalla

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam Hindi, Tamil & Kannada

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                  Dr. Anup R Warrier
                  Dr. Anup R Warrier

                  Dr. Anup R Warrier is Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Infection Control. A Physician with over 9 years of experience and specialised training in management of infectious diseases and infections in hospitals, his special interests are Tropical Infections, Fever of Unknown Etiology evaluation, infections in the ICU & HIV Medicine, Antimicrobial Stewardship and cost – effective, evidence based infection Control.


                  DNB in General Medicine | Fellowship in Infectious Diseases (P D Hinduja Hospital,Mumbai) | Board Certified in Infection Control, Certification in Travel Health, European Diploma in Surgical Infections (SIS-Europe)| MBBS (Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram)


                  Infectious Diseases Specialist, KIMS Hospital, Trivandrum

                  In-Charge of Infection Control Program at KIMS Hospital, Trivandrum

                  Specialized training in Infectious Diseases from premier Institutes in India & USA

                  Close association with the Intensivists helped gain experience in managing infections in the critically ill

                  Developed the Infection Control Program at KIMS to the effect that international benchmarking could be done in line with INICC

                  One of the few Physicians in Kerala formally trained and practicing HIV Medicine

                  Experienced in evaluation & management of prolonged & undiagnosed fevers and also complicated Tropical Infections.

                  Management of adult immunizations, fever & infections in travelers

                  Published Research articles

                  Proficient in English, Malayalam, Hindi and Telugu

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