Dr. Vinod Kumar, Consultant, Aster Centre of Excellence in Nephrology & Urology
Posted on Thursday, April 20, 2017
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) or chronic renal failure is a condition wherein there is a progressive loss of kidney function over a period of time, ranging from months to years. This condition, unlike acute kidney injury (temporary kidney failure that is reversible partially or completely) is permanent and irreversible.
Kidneys are our body’s filters. They purify blood and excrete toxins through urine. So when they lose the ability to function, nitrogenous waste products and toxins gets accumulated in the body, resulting in symptoms and signs of CKD. Among these, the measurable indicators are urea and creatinine levels, which can be detected/ determined through specific blood tests.
Unfortunately, the number of patients with CKD is on the rise globally, with more than around 5 to 10% of the world population affected by it. The numbers are increasing steadily also due to high incidence of lifestyle disorders like diabetes and hypertension, even in those below 40 years of age.
It is estimated that the age adjusted incidence rate of ESRD (end stage renal disease requiring dialysis) is 229/million population, with over 150,000 patients developing ESRD every year. Also, diabetes and hypertension account for two-thirds of the CKD cases.
Kerala, which has infamously been dubbed the diabetic capital of India, is now witnessing a steady rise in the number of patients with CKD progressing to ESRD and requiring dialysis or transplant.
Detecting CKD With Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
GFR is the best and the most efficient way to determine the level of kidney function and the extent/ stage of kidney failure. GFR is calculated using a formula that involves person’s age, gender, race and serum creatinine levels.
Risk Factors/ Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidneys can get damaged due to a wide range of reasons including:
Symptoms & Signs
Symptoms of CKD may be extremely subtle during early stages of chronic kidney disease. Symptoms may become apparent only after the kidney function is significantly impaired.
The symptoms of CKD include:
Management of CKD
There are no specific treatment options for CKD.
The only thing that can be done is prevention or slowing down the progression of the disease.
It is important to diagnose chronic kidney disease in its early stages to prevent further worsening of the condition.
Those with high risk factors should get their kidney functions checked regularly.
Preventing Progression Of CKD:
Treatment Options For ESRD:
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